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French Revolution

 
Definitions
Select the word or phrase that best matches the definition or example provided. Some terms may be used more than once; others may not be used at all.

Terms
A.
continental system
B.
Estates General
C.
National Assembly
D.
Great Fear
E.
Jacobin Club
F.
Reign of Terror
G.
second revolution
H.
Girondists
I.
sans-culottes
J.
Thermidorean reaction
K.
Grand Empire
L.
Napoleonic Code
M.
estates
N.
the Mountain
 

 1. 

The three legal categories, or orders, of France’s inhabitants: the clergy, the nobility, and everyone else.
 

 2. 

The first French revolutionary legislature, made up primarily of representatives of the third estate and a few from the nobility and clergy, in session from 1789 to 1791.
 

 3. 

A legislative body in prerevolutionary France made up of representatives of each of the three classes, or estates; it was called into session in 1789 for the first time since 1614.
 

 4. 

The fear of noble reprisals against peasant uprisings that seized the French countryside and led to further revolt.
 

 5. 

A political club in Revolutionary France whose members were well-educated radical republicans.
 

 6. 

From 1792 to 1795, the second phase of the French Revolution, during which the fall of the French monarchy introduced a rapid radicalization of politics.
 

 7. 

Led by Robespierre, the French National Convention’s radical faction, which seized legislative power in 1793.
 

 8. 

The laboring poor of Paris, so called because the men wore trousers instead of the knee breeches of the aristocracy and middle class; the word came to refer to the militant radicals of the city.
 

 9. 

The period from 1793 to 1794 during which Robespierre’s Committee of Public Safety tried and executed thousands suspected of treason and a new revolutionary culture was imposed.
 

 10. 

Who wrote A Vindication of the Rights of Man (1790) and A Vindication of the Rights of Woman (1792), the latter a founding text of the feminist movement?
A.
Olympe de Gouges
B.
Mary Wollstonecraft
C.
Abigail Adams
D.
Émilie du Châtelet
 

 11. 

What occurred during the Hundred Days in France?
A.
The sans-culottes committed the September Massacres.
B.
Napoleon was driven from Russia.
C.
Napoleon returned from exile to rule France briefly.
D.
The Reign of Terror executed 30,000 people.
 

 12. 

Why was France unable to manage its debt in the eighteenth century, even though that debt was much smaller, relative to its population, than the debt of either Great Britain or Holland?
A.
France lacked trained and experienced financial officers, supported by accounting and bookkeeping staffs, who could direct state credit systems.
B.
France’s economic and political elites lacked a large pool of available capital from which the government could borrow.
C.
France lacked a central bank and paper currency.
D.
France failed to adopt the use of bonds to arrange for long-term debt, believing that such financial instruments demonstrated government weakness.
 

 13. 

Why did the Directory continue French wars of conquest begun by early revolutionary governments?
A.
The Directory had an ideological commitment to liberate all of Europe from aristocratic domination.
B.
The Directory feared that without French intervention, Russia would dominate the continent.
C.
The Directory understood that big, victorious armies kept men employed.
D.
The Directory gave in to demands of the nationalistic populace.
 

 14. 

The attack on the Bastille had what political effect?
A.
The king’s plans to reassert his authority were forestalled, permitting the National Assembly to continue its work.
B.
The National Assembly dissolved the monarchy and arrested the king for treason against the nation.
C.
The peasantry revolted in the Great Fear and attacked noble manors across France.
D.
The Parlement dissolved the National Assembly until the people of Paris returned the Bastille to royal control.
 

 15. 

In the wake of the Great Fear in the summer of 1789, the National Assembly restored order by
A.
calling up army and militia units to suppress the rebellious peasants.
B.
promising to reestablish the control on bread prices.
C.
reducing taxes on agricultural products.
D.
abolishing all of the old noble and church privileges.
 

 16. 

Who forced the king and the royal family to abandon Versailles and return to Paris?
A.
The peasants involved in the Great Fear
B.
Several thousand Parisian women
C.
The rioters of the Bastille
D.
The National Assembly
 

 17. 

The Abbé Sieyès considered the third estate
A.
a bunch of rabble-rousers.
B.
the true strength of the French nation.
C.
those who adhered to liberalism.
D.
the business and professional elite.
 

 18. 

How did the delegates to the Legislative Assembly that convened in October 1791 differ from the delegates to the Estates General/National Assembly?
A.
They were more experienced politicians with a strong commitment to reforming the nation.
B.
They were younger and less cautious; many joined political clubs.
C.
They were more sympathetic to the monarchy.
D.
They were drawn mostly from the provinces and rural countryside.
 

 19. 

What was the goal of the Committee of Public Safety?
A.
To build a coalition of provincial leaders in order to suppress rebellions in France
B.
To establish a secret police force in order to institute the Reign of Terror
C.
To use dictatorial powers to respond to threats to France from without and within
D.
To investigate the army in order to weed out disloyal officers and ensure its obedience to the Legislative Assembly
 

 20. 

In the 1780s, over 50 percent of France’s annual budget was expended on
A.
the military.
B.
the royal court.
C.
interest payments on the debt.
D.
bread subsidies for the poor.
 

 21. 

The legal definition of the composition of the prerevolutionary third estate included
A.
everyone who was not a noble or member of the clergy.
B.
members of the clergy.
C.
all commoners
D.
members of the nobility.
 

 22. 

By July 1794, how had the central government in Paris managed to reassert control over the provinces and gain momentum against the First Coalition?
A.
It used its control over bread supplies to starve the provinces into obedience.
B.
It bribed local officials by placing them into high government offices.
C.
It harnessed the explosive forces of a planned economy, revolutionary terror, and modern nationalism into a total war effort.
D.
It negotiated peace arrangements with all of the provinces, offering them control over conquered foreign territories.
 

 23. 

The men elected to represent the third estate at the Estates General were primarily
A.
provincial nobles.
B.
businessmen.
C.
lawyers and government officials.
D.
wealthy peasants.
 

 24. 

As the Jacobins gained power, what was their reaction to women’s political activity?
A.
They banned all women’s political activity, which they believed to be disorderly and a distraction from women’s proper domestic duties.
B.
They permitted women to participate as passive citizens, without the right to vote but allowed to participate in public debate and gatherings.
C.
They permitted women who agreed with Jacobin principles the right to full participation in political life.
D.
They welcomed women as full political actors in their own right and with full civil liberties.
 

 25. 

Why did members of the National Convention turn against Robespierre on the Ninth of Thermidor?
A.
They believed that Robespierre was soon to proclaim himself the new king of France.
B.
They believed that Robespierre intended to extend the ideals of the Revolution so that slaves would be freed and Jews accepted as full citizens.
C.
They believed that Robespierre might soon have them arrested and executed.
D.
They believed that Robespierre had betrayed the revolution by accepting bribes from Great Britain.
 

 26. 

Which of the following correctly identifies Napoleon Bonaparte’s background?
A.
He came from an impoverished Sardinian family.
B.
He trained as a lawyer before joining the military.
C.
He won brilliant victories in Italy in 1796 and 1797.
D.
His campaign in Egypt was a great military success.
 

 27. 

The string of French military victories after the winter of 1793–94 owed largely to
A.
superior generalship.
B.
patriotism and the superior numbers supplied by the draft.
C.
superior French technology and tactics.
D.
French control of the Seas
 

 28. 

What caused the life-and-death political struggle between the Girondists and the Mountain?
A.
The Girondists’ rejection of war
B.
The Girondists’ radical economic and social policies
C.
The Girondists’ more moderate policies
D.
Religious differences
 

 29. 

How did the Concordat resolve the crisis over Catholicism in France in the Napoleonic era?
A.
The Catholic Church was again recognized as the state religion, which all citizens had to embrace or face prosecution under the law.
B.
The Catholic Church reclaimed full authority over the appointment of church officials, while the French state gained the right to oversee church finances.
C.
The Catholic Church gained the right to practice religion freely, while the French state gained greater control over the nomination of church officers and church activities.
D.
The Catholic Church promised to promote French nationalism, while the French state agreed to abandon efforts to control church doctrine.
 

 30. 

How did the National Assembly respond to the hopes and expectations of Saint-Domingue’s different social groups?
A.
It granted free people of color political enfranchisement and equal status with whites.
B.
It granted the Creole elite a representative form of government that offered them the chance to gain control of their affairs.
C.
It responded to the wishes of the 90 percent of the population who were enslaved by abolishing slavery.
D.
It frustrated the hopes of all the different social groups.
 

 31. 

After the arrest and deportation of Toussaint L’Ouverture, how was the war of Haitian Independence resolved?
A.
A rival to L’Ouverture, André Rigaud, defeated the French forces and declared Haitian independence.
B.
The Spanish invaded from their colony of Santo Domingo, defeated the French, and allowed the formation of the sovereign nation of Haiti.
C.
Jean-Jacques Dessalines, L’Ouverture’s lieutenant, led the resistance to a crushing victory over the French and later declared Haitian independence.
D.
The British invaded Saint-Domingue and, after defeating the French, allowed the Haitians to form the sovereign nation of Haiti.
 

 32. 

Who predicted in Reflections on the Revolution in France (1790) that reform like that occurring in France would lead only to chaos and tyranny?
A.
Mary Wollstonecraft
B.
Thomas Paine
C.
Edmund Burke
D.
Abbé de Sieyès
 
 
Source-Based Questions
Choose the letter of the best answer.
 

 33. 

In Primary Source 19.2: What Is the Third Estate?, what does the Abbé de Sieyès say about the third estate?
A.
The first and second estates have always unfairly dominated the third estate.
B.
The third estate wants to have the same privileges the second estate has.
C.
The third estate is much larger than the first and the second estates.
D.
The third estate contains everything that pertains to the nation, and thus it is everything.
 

 34. 

In Primary Source 19.3: Petition of the French Jews, what is the main argument for citizenship?
A.
Jews have no way to make a living unless they become citizens.
B.
Extending citizenship to the French Jews would be the Christian thing to do.
C.
If Protestants were granted civil rights, so, too, French Jews should be granted those same civil rights.
D.
Since civil rights are independent from religious principles, all men are equally able to serve the fatherland and should have the title of citizen.
 

 35. 

On Map 19.3: The War of Haitian Independence, 1791–1804, where is the first phase of the slave insurrection in 1791 located?

mc035-1.jpg
A.
Near what would become the capital of Haiti, the city of Port-au-Prince
B.
In the area controlled by the forces of André Rigaud from 1794 to 1800
C.
In the area of the capital of Saint-Domingue, Le Cap
D.
In the area invaded by the British in 1793
 



 
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